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To be a successful S/W Engineer 

1. Object orientation is much harder than you think
      Maybe it’s just me, but coming from Computer Science class I thought that OO was easy. I mean, how hard can it be to create classes that mimic the real world? It turns out that it’s pretty hard. Ten years later, I’m still learning how to model properly. I wish I spent more time reading up on OO and design patterns. Good modeling skills are worth a lot to every development team.

  2. The difficult part of software development is communication
      And that’s communication with persons, not socket programming. Now and then you do run into a tricky technical problem, but it’s not at all that common. Much more common is misunderstandings between you and the project manager, between you and the customer and finally between you and the other developers. Work on your soft skills.

  3. Learn to say no
      When I started working, I was very eager to please. This meant that I had a hard time saying no to things people asked of me. I worked a lot of overtime, and still didn’t finish everything that was asked of me. The result was disappointment from their side, and almost burning out on my part. If you never say no, your yes is worth very little. Commit to what you can handle, and if people keep asking you for more, make it very explicit that this would mean not doing something else. What I did was to have a list of stuff that I needed to do on a piece of paper with me. When someone asked for something, I showed them the list and asked what I should bump to have time to help them. This allowed me to say no in a nice way.

  4. If everything is equally important, then nothing is important
      The business likes to say that all the features are as crucial. They are not. Push back and make them commit. It’s easier if you don’t force them to pick what to do and what not to do. Instead, let them choose what you should do this week. This will let you produce the stuff that brings value first. If all else goes haywire, at least you’ve done that.

  5. Don’t over-think a problem
      I can spend whole days designing things in front of the white board. That doesn’t mean it will be any better, it just means it will be more complicated. I don’t mean to say you shouldn’t design at all, just that the implementation will quickly show me stuff I didn’t think of anyway, so why try to make it perfect? Like Dave Farell says: “The devil is in the details, but exorcism is in implementation, not theory.”

  6. Dive really deep into something, but don’t get hung up
      Chris and I spent a lot of time getting into the real deep parts of SQL Server. It was great fun and I learned a lot from it, but after some time I realized that knowing that much didn’t really help me solve the business’ problems. An example: I know that at the table level, SQL Server will not take an IU lock – it will only take a IX lock. This is a performance tweak, since most of the time, the IU lock will have to be escalated into a IX lock anyway. To find this, I spent countless days experimenting, I read loads of material and talked to Microsoft people at conferences. Have I ever had any use of this knowledge. Nope.

  7. Learn about the other parts of the software development machine
      It’s really important to be a great developer. But to be a great part of the system that produces software, you need to understand what the rest of the system does. How do the QA people work? What does the project manager do? What drives the business analyst? This knowledge will help you connect with the rest of the people, and will grease interactions with them. Ask the people around you for help in learning more. What books are good? Most people will be flattered that you care, and willingly help you out. A little time on this goes a really long way.

  8. Your colleagues are your best teachers
      A year after I started on my first job, we merged with another company. Suddenly I had a lot of much more talented and experienced people around me. I remember distinctly how this made me feel inferior and stupid. I studied hard, reading book after book but I still didn’t catch up. They had too much of an advantage on me, I figured.

      Nowadays, working with great people doesn’t make me feel bad at all. I just feel I have the chance of a lifetime to learn. I ask questions and I try really hard to understand how my colleagues come to the conclusions they do. This is why I joined ThoughtWorks. See your peers as an asset, not competition.

  9. It all comes down to working software
      No matter how cool your algorithms are, no matter how brilliant your database schema is, no matter how fabulous your whatever is, if it doesn’t scratch the clients’ itch, it’s not worth anything. Focus on delivering working software, and at the same time prepare to continue delivering software using that code base and you’re on the right path.

  10. Some people are assholes
      Most of the time, most of the people around you are great. You learn from them, and they learn from you. Accomplishing something together is a good feeling. Unfortunately, you will probably run into the exceptions. People that because of something or other are plain old mean. Demeaning bosses. Lying colleagues. Stupid, ignorant customers. Don’t take this too hard. Try to work around them and do what you can to minimize the pain and effort they cause, but don’t blame yourself. As long as you stay honest and do your best, you’ve done your part.

How to estimate project deadlines

Before jumping into calculating or estimating a Project Timeline, I will go through the steps of how a software should be executed, so that whatever is estimated, actually works out that way.

In the present day scenario where Time-to-Market issues achieve greater precedence over other issues, which we have learnt over the years, the developers’ productivity and quality of the software go out of the window. Has anyone thought why more and more open-source projects are gaining such popularity compared to their proprietary counterparts?

The simple reason is the desire to build robust and good quality software where revenue earned is not the major criteria. Open-source developers have a different mindset, they code without selfishness, however that’s a different story.

Coming back to the topic, the software life cycle consists of: –
  1. Analysis
  2. Design
  3. Construction
  4. Deployment
  5. Maintenance
Each of the phases is tightly coupled with each other and a slippage in any of the phases will always carry down to the following phases. This brings us to the first phase, i.e. Analysis.

Phase 1 – Analysis
This is where the whole story begins. Analysis is the process of understanding the customer’s requirement and mapping it to the use cases. The most essential requirement of this phase is effective communication, however this fact is normally ignored. It must be understood that not all people are good at everything. Allocating the brightest brain in the organization for the Requirement Analysis may not be the best idea. By communicate effectively I mean a person who can give a patient listening rather than showing his oratory skills and of course one who is experienced in doing such kind of a job.

Phase 2 – Design
Once the foundation is laid with good use cases, it’s not that difficult a task to design the system. However one must keep in mind to use the best tools available for creating the software model. It is wise not to architect something new and venture into unseen territory to prove one’s designing skills, rather than use accepted models and architecture, which have matured over the years. Putting one’s designing prowess to test is best done with personal or open-source projects. Following the standards of designing will always result in a stable model.

Phase 3 – Construction
Again as the skills of developers vary, the only way we can get good consistent code is by following high class coding and documentation standards. A good practice is to have an independent Code Reviewer, who is well versed with the coding and documentation standards, and who will do the review as the programs are being written so that the developers will not run a mock with their code with the attitude that ‘It will be done later’. This actually never happens. Once a code is written it always stays that way. The other important implementation during this phase is Unit testing and System testing. It sounds synonymous but there is a difference between the two, Unit testing is testing the performance of the methods of a class whereas System testing is the performance of a class when accessed from another class. This is important at this stage, as a bug is less expensive when found at an early stage as compared to when found during Functional testing. By implementing these simple measures, the Quality of software will definitely be enhanced.

Phase 4 – Deployment
One of the most critical steps in the software lifecycle is the deployment process. This is often a customer’s first experience with a product and a bad experience can have lasting effects. Successful deployment depends on good System design and architecture of the project, which brings us back to the design phase. It is during the design phase itself deployment considerations should be kept in mind so that there are no hiccups during deployment.

Phase 5 – Maintenance
This phase will be a breeze if the Analysis, Design, Construction and Deployment have gone off smoothly. The reason is that the issues to deal with, during this phase, will be considerably reduced.

There are many software processes formulated over the years, which deal with building robust and stable software of which the Rational Unified Process (RUP) and the Agile Unified Process (AUP) are widely used. Extreme Programming is also gaining popularity these days. No matter which process is being used by the organization, it has to be followed sincerely without making any exceptions.

Calculating the Project Time
The reason why I had elaborated on the phases of the software development cycle was to stress upon the fact that whichever method you use for estimating the timeline for a project, the project will be on schedule if and only if the aforesaid are implemented with sincerity.
Making good time estimations requires a combination of qualities, which are experience, intuition and good technical skills.
The method I am illustrating is the one by Derek C Ashmore, from his book titled the “The J2EE Architect’s Handbook”, which states that the approximate time for a project can be calculated by:

  a. The total number of screens multiplied by 2 man-weeks each
  b. The total number of External application interfaces multiplied by 4 man-weeks each
  c. The total number of Database tables multiplied by 2 man-weeks each
  d. The total number of Tables or files updated multiplied by 2 man-weeks each

This will give the base estimate for a single developer. Multiply the base estimate by 2.5 to include analysis and testing activities for each usecase, lets call this figure as the total estimate for a single developer. Now for each developer added to the project multiply the total estimate with 1.20 (As each developer added increases Communication and Management time, which is also time consumed for the project).
At times when implementing the above strategy, some time estimations for certain modules of the project may seem a bit too inflated. In these circumstances adjust the assumptions made in a, b, c, d for those specific modules.

Hope these inputs will be helpful to those interested.


1. Mandar - August 27, 2006

Its a nice articlce Srini.

2. sourav nayak - December 7, 2006

this site is really good. Couod you give some advice like how a fresher should prepair himelf to become a java developer. does he/she need to know everything like java, j2ee, ejb , struts, hibernate etc… to get a job or only if he/she is good at java its fine?

youe help is appriciated,
thank you in advance,

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