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J2EE interview questions

  1. What makes J2EE suitable for distributed multitiered Applications?
    – The J2EE platform uses a multitiered distributed application model. Application logic is divided into components according to function, and the various application components that make up a J2EE application are installed on different machines depending on the tier in the multitiered J2EE environment to which the application component belongs. The J2EE application parts are:

    • Client-tier components run on the client machine.
    • Web-tier components run on the J2EE server.
    • Business-tier components run on the J2EE server.
    • Enterprise information system (EIS)-tier software runs on the EIS server.
  2. What is J2EE? – J2EE is an environment for developing and deploying enterprise applications. The J2EE platform consists of a set of services, application programming interfaces (APIs), and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, web-based applications.
  3. What are the components of J2EE application?
    – A J2EE component is a self-contained functional software unit that is assembled into a J2EE application with its related classes and files and communicates with other components. The J2EE specification defines the following J2EE components:

1.      Application clients and applets are client components.

2.      Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages technology components are web components.

3.      Enterprise JavaBeans components (enterprise beans) are business components.

4.      Resource adapter components provided by EIS and tool vendors.

  1. What do Enterprise JavaBeans components contain? – Enterprise JavaBeans components contains Business code, which is logic that solves or meets the needs of a particular business domain such as banking, retail, or finance, is handled by enterprise beans running in the business tier. All the business code is contained inside an Enterprise Bean which receives data from client programs, processes it (if necessary), and sends it to the enterprise information system tier for storage. An enterprise bean also retrieves data from storage, processes it (if necessary), and sends it back to the client program.
  2. Is J2EE application only a web-based? – No, It depends on type of application that client wants. A J2EE application can be web-based or non-web-based. if an application client executes on the client machine, it is a non-web-based J2EE application. The J2EE application can provide a way for users to handle tasks such as J2EE system or application administration. It typically has a graphical user interface created from Swing or AWT APIs, or a command-line interface. When user request, it can open an HTTP connection to establish communication with a servlet running in the web tier.
  3. Are JavaBeans J2EE components? – No. JavaBeans components are not considered J2EE components by the J2EE specification. They are written to manage the data flow between an application client or applet and components running on the J2EE server or between server components and a database. JavaBeans components written for the J2EE platform have instance variables and get and set methods for accessing the data in the instance variables. JavaBeans components used in this way are typically simple in design and implementation, but should conform to the naming and design conventions outlined in the JavaBeans component architecture.


  1. Is HTML page a web component? – No. Static HTML pages and applets are bundled with web components during application assembly, but are not considered web components by the J2EE specification. Even the server-side utility classes are not considered web components, either.
  2. What can be considered as a web component? – J2EE Web components can be either servlets or JSP pages. Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. JSP pages are text-based documents that execute as servlets but allow a more natural approach to creating static content.
  3. What is the container? – Containers are the interface between a component and the low-level platform specific functionality that supports the component. Before a Web, enterprise bean, or application client component can be executed, it must be assembled into a J2EE application and deployed into its container.
  4. What are container services? – A container is a runtime support of a system-level entity. Containers provide components with services such as lifecycle management, security, deployment, and threading.
  5. What is the web container? – Servlet and JSP containers are collectively referred to as Web containers. It manages the execution of JSP page and servlet components for J2EE applications. Web components and their container run on the J2EE server.
  6. What is Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) container? – It manages the execution of enterprise beans for J2EE applications.
    Enterprise beans and their container run on the J2EE server.
  7. What is Applet container? – It manages the execution of applets. Consists of a Web browser and Java Plug-in running on the client together.
  8. How do we package J2EE components? – J2EE components are packaged separately and bundled into a J2EE application for deployment. Each component, its related files such as GIF and HTML files or server-side utility classes, and a deployment descriptor are assembled into a module and added to the J2EE application. A J2EE application is composed of one or more enterprise bean, Web, or application client component modules. The final enterprise solution can use one J2EE application or be made up of two or more J2EE applications, depending on design requirements. A J2EE application and each of its modules has its own deployment descriptor. A deployment descriptor is an XML document with an .xml extension that describes a component’s deployment settings.
  9. What is a thin client? – A thin client is a lightweight interface to the application that does not have such operations like query databases, execute complex business rules, or connect to legacy applications.
  10. What are types of J2EE clients? – Following are the types of J2EE clients:
    • Applets
    • Application clients
    • Java Web Start-enabled rich clients, powered by Java Web Start technology.
    • Wireless clients, based on Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) technology.
  2. What is deployment descriptor? – A deployment descriptor is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) text-based file with an .xml extension that describes a component’s deployment settings. A J2EE application and each of its modules has its own deployment descriptor. For example, an enterprise bean module deployment descriptor declares transaction attributes and security authorizations for an enterprise bean. Because deployment descriptor information is declarative, it can be changed without modifying the bean source code. At run time, the J2EE server reads the deployment descriptor and acts upon the component accordingly.
  3. What is the EAR file? – An EAR file is a standard JAR file with an .ear extension, named from Enterprise ARchive file. A J2EE application with all of its modules is delivered in EAR file.
  4. What is JTA and JTS? – JTA is the abbreviation for the Java Transaction API. JTS is the abbreviation for the Java Transaction Service. JTA provides a standard interface and allows you to demarcate transactions in a manner that is independent of the transaction manager implementation. The J2EE SDK implements the transaction manager with JTS. But your code doesn’t call the JTS methods directly. Instead, it invokes the JTA methods, which then call the lower-level JTS routines. Therefore, JTA is a high level transaction interface that your application uses to control transaction. and JTS is a low level transaction interface and ejb uses behind the scenes (client code doesn’t directly interact with JTS. It is based on object transaction service(OTS) which is part of CORBA.
  5. What is JAXP? – JAXP stands for Java API for XML. XML is a language for representing and describing text-based data which can be read and handled by any program or tool that uses XML APIs. It provides standard services to determine the type of an arbitrary piece of data, encapsulate access to it, discover the operations available on it, and create the appropriate JavaBeans component to perform those operations.
  6. What is J2EE Connector? – The J2EE Connector API is used by J2EE tools vendors and system integrators to create resource adapters that support access to enterprise information systems that can be plugged into any J2EE product. Each type of database or EIS has a different resource adapter. Note: A resource adapter is a software component that allows J2EE application components to access and interact with the underlying resource manager. Because a resource adapter is specific to its resource manager, there is typically a different resource adapter for each type of database or enterprise information system.
  7. What is JAAS? – The Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provides a way for a J2EE application to authenticate and authorize a specific user or group of users to run it. It is a standard Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM) framework that extends the Java 2 platform security architecture to support user-based authorization.
  8. What is Java Naming and Directory Service? – The JNDI provides naming and directory functionality. It provides applications with methods for performing standard directory operations, such as associating attributes with objects and searching for objects using their attributes. Using JNDI, a J2EE application can store and retrieve any type of named Java object. Because JNDI is independent of any specific implementations, applications can use JNDI to access multiple naming and directory services, including existing naming and directory services such as LDAP, NDS, DNS, and NIS.
  9. What is Struts? – A Web page development framework. Struts combines Java Servlets, Java Server Pages, custom tags, and message resources into a unified framework. It is a cooperative, synergistic platform, suitable for development teams, independent developers, and everyone between.
  10. How is the MVC design pattern used in Struts framework? – In the MVC design pattern, application flow is mediated by a central Controller. The Controller delegates requests to an appropriate handler. The handlers are tied to a Model, and each handler acts as an adapter between the request and the Model. The Model represents, or encapsulates, an application’s business logic or state. Control is usually then forwarded back through the Controller to the appropriate View. The forwarding can be determined by consulting a set of mappings, usually loaded from a database or configuration file. This provides a loose coupling between the View and Model, which can make an application significantly easier to create and maintain. Controller: Servlet controller which supplied by Struts itself; View: what you can see on the screen, a JSP page and presentation components; Model: System state and a business logic JavaBeans.


1. santosh - August 6, 2006

This site is really helpful.
Please provide answers to following interview questions,so someone like me can get benefitted?
01) How to deploy an ear file (explain step by step)?
02) How to add jar file to existing ear?
03) What are the configurations needed to be done on Server(ex.bea)
04) If a ear has multilple wars, then how many sturts-config.xml can be present in a ear
05) How to build ear for your application from CVS (which has other application of the company)

2. Surya - November 30, 2006

Hi Allu,
Please update “Date” in our site

3. TMS Raj - December 3, 2006

Hi Allu,

Can u explain me the concept of framework and the architecture and how they are related.

Thanking you in anticipation

4. chaitanya - February 6, 2007

what is the diff between arraylist and vector?

5. Karthik - March 4, 2007

Could u please explain clear all the 4 types of inner class with specific example and when to go for inner class

6. siewpeng - March 20, 2007

A very useful explanation on j2EE. But do u mind to elaborate on the EAR , JAR file. And what about the WAR file extension?

7. Vinay - April 3, 2007

Plz tell me how to prepare for SCJP.

8. deepak - June 25, 2007

how do you manage connection pooling in a server?(JBoss/WebLogic)

9. chinmaya - July 15, 2007


10. santhi - August 11, 2007

hi srinivas,

your site is nice.alot of information is included .

update regularly

11. pallavi - August 15, 2007

hi srinivas,
u r site is very nice.lot of useful information is presented,

update this with new inforamtion,which is helpful to the browsers.

plz tell me the easy way to learn j2ee(srtucts,ejbs…)

12. chitra - September 24, 2007

This is an icredible site!!!!!!!!!
I am really impressed with the topics covered…
Please try and include topics on abstraction and type casting as well..

But one more time awesome work allu…………

Hats off ………

13. selvin - October 13, 2008

Anyone can deploy the ejb applications in jboss server? plz send the entire information to me…..

14. JAI - September 24, 2009

Any one please replay me,how is Db2 work as a Data base tier.

15. Cialis - March 7, 2010

3dFiKm Excellent article, I will take note. Many thanks for the story!

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