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Difference between Struts 1 & Struts 2 October 30, 2009

Posted by Allu in Struts.
Struts 1 Struts 2
Action classes Struts 1 requires Action classes to extend an abstract base class. A common problem in Struts 1 is programming to abstract classes instead of interfaces. An Struts 2 Action may implement an Action interface, along with other interfaces to enable optional and custom services. Struts 2 provide a base ActionSupport class to implement commonly used interfaces. Albeit, the Action interface is not required. Any POJO object with a execute signature can be used as an Struts 2 Action object.
Threading Model Struts 1 Actions are singletons and must be thread-safe since there will only be one instance of a class to handle all requests for that Action. The singleton strategy places restrictions on what can be done with Struts 1 Actions and requires extra care to develop. Action resources must be thread-safe or synchronized. Struts 2 Action objects are instantiated for each request, so there are no thread-safety issues. (In practice, servlet containers generate many throw-away objects per request, and one more object does not impose a performance penalty or impact garbage collection.)
Servlet Dependency Struts 1 Actions have dependencies on the servlet API since the HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse is passed to the execute method when an Action is invoked. Struts 2 Actions are not coupled to a container. Most often the servlet contexts are represented as simple Maps, allowing Actions to be tested in isolation. Struts 2 Actions can still access the original request and response, if required. However, other architectural elements reduce or eliminate the need to access the HttpServetRequest or HttpServletResponse directly.
Testability A major hurdle to testing Struts 1 Actions is that the execute method exposes the Servlet API. A third-party extension, Struts TestCase, offers a set of mock object for Struts 1. Struts 2 Actions can be tested by instantiating the Action, setting properties, and invoking methods. Dependency Injection support also makes testing simpler.
Harvesting Input Struts 1 uses an ActionForm object to capture input. Like Actions, all ActionForms must extend a base class. Since  other JavaBeans cannot be used as ActionForms, developers often create redundant classes to capture input. DynaBeans can used as an alternative to creating conventional ActionForm classes, but, here too, developers may be redescribing existing JavaBeans. Struts 2 uses Action properties as input properties, eliminating the need for a second input object. Input properties may be rich object types which may have their own properties. The Action properties can be accessed from the web page via the taglibs. Struts 2 also support the ActionForm pattern, as well as POJO form objects and POJO Actions. Rich object types, including business or domain objects, can be used as input/output objects. The ModelDriven feature simplifies taglb references to POJO input objects.
Expression Language Struts 1 integrates with JSTL, so it uses the JSTL EL. The EL has basic object graph traversal, but relatively weak collection and indexed property support. Struts 2 can use JSTL, but the framework also supports a more powerful and flexible expression language called “Object Graph Notation Language” (OGNL).
Binding values into views Struts 1 uses the standard JSP mechanism for binding objects into the page context for access. Struts 2 uses a “ValueStack” technology so that the taglibs can access values without coupling your view to the object type it is rendering. The ValueStack strategy allows reuse of views across a range of types which may have the same property name but different property types.
Type Conversion Struts 1 ActionForm properties are usually all Strings. Struts 1 uses Commons-Beanutils for type conversion. Converters are per-class, and not configurable per instance. Struts 2 uses OGNL for type conversion. The framework includes converters for basic and common object types and primitives.
Validation Struts 1 supports manual validation via a validate method on the ActionForm, or through an extension to the Commons Validator. Classes can have different validation contexts for the same class, but cannot chain to validations on sub-objects. Struts 2 supports manual validation via the validate method and the XWork Validation framework. The Xwork Validation Framework supports chaining validation into sub-properties using the validations defined for the properties class type and the validation context.
Control Of Action Execution Struts 1 supports separate Request Processors (lifecycles) for each module, but all the Actions in the module must share the same lifecycle. Struts 2 supports creating different lifecycles on a per Action basis via Interceptor Stacks. Custom stacks can be created and used with different Actions, as needed.

J2EE 3-tier or n-tier architecture August 18, 2007

Posted by Allu in J2EE.

The J2EE platform is a multi-tiered system. A tier is a logical or functional partitioning of a system. When the developers are not disciplined, the display logic, business logic and database logic are muddled up and/or duplicated in a 2- tier client server system.

The advantages of the multi-tier architecture are:

·         Forced separation of user interface logic and business logic.

·         Business logic sits on small number of centralized machines (may be just one).

·         Easy to maintain, to manage, to scale, loosely coupled etc.

Each tier is assigned a unique responsibility in a 3-tier system. Each tier is logically separated and loosely coupled from each other, and may be distributed.

Client tier represents Web browser, a Java or other application, Applet, WAP phone etc. The client tier makes requests to the Web server who will be serving the request by either returning static content if it is present in the Web server or forwards the request to either Servlet or JSP in the application server for either static or dynamic content.

Presentation tier encapsulates the presentation logic required to serve clients. A Servlet or JSP in the presentation tier intercepts client requests, manages logons, sessions, accesses the business services, and finally constructs a response, which gets delivered to client.

Business tier provides the business services. This tier contains the business logic and the business data. All the business logic is centralized into this tier as opposed to 2-tier systems where the business logic is scattered between the front end and the backend. The benefit of having a centralized business tier is that same business logic can support different types of clients like browser, WAP, other stand-alone applications etc.

Integration tier is responsible for communicating with external resources such as databases, legacy systems, ERP systems, messaging systems like MQSeries etc. The components in this tier use JDBC, JMS, J2EE Connector Architecture (JCA) and some proprietary middleware to access the resource tier.

Resource tier is the external resource such as a database, ERP system, Mainframe system etc responsible for storing the data. This tier is also known as Data Tier or EIS (Enterprise Information System) Tier.


The advantages of a 3-tiered or n-tiered application: 3-tier or multi-tier architectures force separation among presentation logic, business logic and database logic. Let us look at some of the key benefits:

·         Manageability: Each tier can be monitored, tuned and upgraded independently and different people can have clearly defined responsibilities.

·         Scalability: More hardware can be added and allows clustering (i.e. horizontal scaling).

·         Maintainability: Changes and upgrades can be performed without affecting other components.

·         Availability: Clustering and load balancing can provide availability.

·         Extensibility: Additional features can be easily added.

Constructor June 18, 2007

Posted by Allu in JAVA.

The automatic initialization is performed through the constructor, constructor has same name has class name. Constructor has no return type not even void. We can pass the parameters to the constructor. this() is used to invoke a constructor of the same class. Super() is used to invoke a super class constructor. Constructor is called immediately after the object is created before the new operator completes.

 Constructor can use the access modifiers public, protected, private or have no access modifier

 Constructor can not use the modifiers abstract, static, final, native, synchronized or strictfp

 Constructor can be overloaded, we cannot override.

 You cannot use this() and Super() in the same constructor.

What is the Max amount of information that can be saved in a Session Object? February 7, 2007

Posted by Allu in J2EE.

As such there is no limit on the amount of information that can be saved in a Session Object. Only the RAM available on the server machine is the limitation. The only limit is the Session ID length(Identifier), which should not exceed more than 4K. If the data to be store is very huge, then it’s preferred to save it to a temporary file onto hard disk, rather than saving it in session. Internally if the amount of data being saved in Session exceeds the predefined limit, most of the servers write it to a temporary cache on Hard disk.

Difference between session and cookie? February 7, 2007

Posted by Allu in J2EE.

1) session should work regardless of the settings on the client browser. even if users decide to forbid the cookie (through browser settings) session still works. there is no way to disable sessions from the client browser.
2) session and cookies differ in type and amount of information they are capable of storing.
Javax.servlet.http.Cookie class has a setValue() method that accepts Strings. javax.servlet.http.HttpSession has a setAttribute() method which takes a String to denote the name and java.lang.Object which means that HttpSession is capable of storing any java object. Cookie can only store String objects.

Difference between ArrayList and Vector? February 7, 2007

Posted by Allu in JAVA.
  • Internally, both the ArrayList and Vector hold onto their contents using an Array. A Vector defaults to doubling the size of its array, while the ArrayList increases its array size by 50 percent.
  • ArrayList doesn’t have a constructor for specifying the incremental capacity, where as Vector has a constructor to specify the initial capacity and incremental capacity.
  • Vector is synchronized where as ArrayList is not synchronized

Types of Servlets January 23, 2007

Posted by Allu in Servlets.

Servlets must implement the interface javax.servlet.Servlet. There are two main types of servlets:

  • Generic servlets extend javax.servlet.GenericServlet. Generic servlets are protocol independent, meaning that they contain no inherent support for HTTP or any other transport protocol. 
  • HTTP servlets extend javax.servlet.HttpServlet. These servlets have built-in support for the HTTP protocol and are much more useful in an Browser environment

Servlets that extend HttpServlet are much more useful in an HTTP environment, since that is what they were designed for. We recommend that all  Servlets extend from HttpServlet rather than from GenericServlet in order to take advantage of this built-in HTTP support.

For both types of Servlets, you can implement the constructor method init() and/or the destructor method destroy() if you need to initialize or deallocate resources. 

All Servlets must implement a service() method. This method is responsible for handling requests made to the Servlet. For generic Servlets, you simply override the service() method to provide routines for handling requests. HTTP Servlets provide a service method that automatically routes the request to another method in the servlet based on which HTTP transfer method is used, so for HTTP Servlets you would override doPost() to process POST requests, doGet() to process GET requests, and so on.

Difference between preemptive scheduling and time slicing January 23, 2007

Posted by Allu in JAVA.

Under preemptive scheduling, the highest priority task executes until it enters the waiting or dead states or a higher priority task comes into existence. Under time slicing, a task executes for a predefined slice of time and then reenters the pool of ready tasks. The scheduler then determines which task should execute next, based on priority and other factors.

Difference between the getRequestDispatcher(String path) method of javax.servlet.ServletRequest interface and javax.servlet.ServletContext interface? January 3, 2007

Posted by Allu in Servlets.

The getRequestDispatcher(String path) method of javax.servlet.ServletRequest interface accepts parameter the path to the resource to be included or forwarded to, which can be relative to the request of the calling servlet. If the path begins with a “/” it is interpreted as relative to the current context root.
The getRequestDispatcher(String path) method of javax.servlet.ServletContext interface cannot accepts relative paths.

Difference between SAX and DOM parsers? December 28, 2006

Posted by Allu in JAVA.

SAX Parser:

·        A SAX (Simple API for XML) parser does not create any internal structure. Instead, it takes the occurrences of components of an input document as events, and tells the client what it reads as it reads through the input document.

·        A SAX parser serves the client application always only with pieces of the document at any given time.

·        A SAX parser, however, is much more space efficient in case of a big input document (because it creates no internal structure). What’s more, it runs faster and is easier to learn than DOM parser because its API is really simple. But from the functionality point of view, it provides a fewer functions, which means that the users themselves have to take care of more, such as creating their own data structures.

DOM Parser:

·        A DOM (Document Object Model) parser creates a tree structure in memory from an input document and then waits for requests from client.

·        A DOM parser always serves the client application with the entire document no matter how much is actually needed by the client.

·        A DOM parser is rich in functionality. It creates a DOM tree in memory and allows you to access any part of the document repeatedly and allows you to modify the DOM tree. But it is space inefficient when the document is huge, and it takes a little bit longer to learn how to work with it.


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